Last updated on: 5/3/2021 | Author: ProCon.org

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes:

1.Elisabetta Gentile and Scott A. Imberman, "Dressed for Success? The Effect of School Uniforms on Student Achievement and Behavior," utdallas.edu, Jan. 15, 2010
2.Ryan Yeung, "Are School Uniforms a Good Fit?: Results from the ECLS-K and the NELS," Educational Policy, Nov. 2009
3.Jennifer Weiss, "Do Clothes Make the Student?," nytimes.com, Sep. 16, 2006
4.Dorothy Behling, "School Uniforms and Person Perception," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Oct. 1994
5.University of North Texas, "School Uniforms Equalize Students, Education Professors Say," news.unt.edu, Aug. 3, 2006
6.John A. Gavin, "Schools Find Stricter Rules, Uniforms Can Lessen Bullying," northjersey.com, Feb. 8, 2011
7.Daily Herald Editorial Board, "Uniforms Benefit Students," heraldnet.com, Sep. 4, 2012
8.NorthJersey.com, "Editorial: Do Uniforms Make Better Students?," northjersey.com, Sep. 29, 2011
9.Madison Park, "School Uniforms Poll Bares Generation Gap," baltimoresun.com, Dec. 23, 2007
10.Carol Motsinger, "Ironing out Policies on School Uniforms," usatoday.com, Aug. 6, 2007
11.Ovetta Wiggins, "Pr. George's Students Who Chose Pink, Not Uniforms, for Breast Cancer Month Punished," washingtonpost.com, Oct. 25, 2013
12.Linda Starr, "Can Uniforms Save Our Schools?," educationworld.com, May 11, 1998
13.Glori Chaika, "School Uniforms: Panacea or Band-Aid?," educationworld.com, Oct. 11, 1999
14.David L. Brunsma, The School Uniform Movement and What It Tells Us about American Education: A Symbolic Crusade, 2004
15.Peter Caruso, "Individuality vs. Conformity: The Issue behind School Uniforms," NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) Bulletin, Sep. 1996
16.American Civil Liberties Union, "All Dressed Up and Nowhere to Go: Students and Their Parents Fight School Uniform Policies," aclu.org, Nov. 4, 1999
17.American Civil Liberties Union of Nevada, "Four Reasons Public Schools Should Think Twice Before Instituting School Uniform Policies," aclunv.org, Dec. 19, 2008
18.David L. Hudson Jr., "Clothing, Dress Codes & Uniforms," firstamendmentcenter.org, Apr. 1, 2002
19.French Toast Official School Wear, "Why School Uniforms?," frenchtoast.com (accessed Aug. 15, 2014)
20.John A. Huss, "The Role of School Uniforms in Creating an Academically Motivating Climate: Do Uniforms Influence Teacher Expectations," Journal of Ethnographic and Qualitative Research, 2007
21.Lisa Flam, "Are School Uniforms Helping or Hindering?," today.com, Aug. 19, 2013
22.Greg Toppo, "What to Wear? Schools Increasingly Making That Decision," usatoday.com, Aug. 18, 2013
23.US Department of Education and Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013," nces.ed.gov, June 2014
24.Kathleen Kiley Wade and Mary E. Stafford, "Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions," Education and Urban Society, Aug. 2003
25.Claudene Wharton, "College of Education Researchers Conduct Study on Impacts of School Uniforms," unr.edu, Apr. 23, 2013
26.J. Scott Granberg-Rademacker, Jeffrey Bumgarner, and Avra Johnson, "Do School Violence Policies Matter? An Empirical Analysis of Four Approaches to Reduce School Violence," Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice, Spring 2007
27.Virginia Ann Bendel Draa, "School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools," eric.ed.gov, Nov. 30, 2005
28.US Supreme Court, Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, law.cornell.edu, Feb. 24, 1969
29.United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board, caselaw.findlaw.com, Jan. 23, 2001
30.Mike Wilson, "Clinton Raps Teacher Merit Pay," Associated Press, Nov. 19, 2007
31.Camille Chatterjee, "Uniform Improvements," psychologytoday.com, Sep. 1, 1999
32.National Association of Elementary School Principals, "National Survey of School Leaders Reveals 2013 School Uniform Trends," naesp.org, July 30, 2013
33.Linda Abel Fosseen, "School Uniforms in Middle Schools: Enhancing Identity and Security," Uniforms in Public Schools: A Decade of Research and Debate, Ed. David L. Brunsma, 2006
34.Mark Walsh and Karen Diegmueller, "Law Update: Judge Upholds Mandatory Uniforms at Phoenix School," edweek.org, Nov. 15, 1995
35.US Department of Education, "Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools: An Action Guide: Uniforms," ed.gov, Sep. 1996
36.US Department of Justice and US Department of Health and Human Services, "Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership," ncjrs.gov, 2013
37.Jay Wheeler, "Letters to the Editor: School Uniforms Discourage Gangs," orlandosentinel.com, Sep. 10, 2009
38.Larry Wilder, "Pros and Cons of School Dress Code: Pros of School Dress Code: Helping Students Dress for Safety," fresno.edu, Nov. 11, 2007
39.Elin Hofverberg, "Sweden: School Inspectorate Says School Uniforms Are Human Rights Violation," loc.gov, Feb. 1, 2018
40.George Carlin, You Are All Diseased (album), 1999
41.Angela Walmsley, "What the United Kingdom Can Teach the United States about School Uniforms," Phi Delta Kappan, Mar. 2011
42.Tom Houlihan, "School Uniform Debate: 'School Uniforms Are Just Another Distraction,'" education.com (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
43.Joe Mathews, "In Uniforms, No Uniformity," latimes.com, July 11, 2001
44.Maria Halkias, "Retail Sales' Dip Trims Merchants' Hopes for Back-to-School Season," dallasnews.com, Jan. 18, 2011
45.Laura Clark, "School Uniform Improves Pupils' Behaviour Both in and out of School," dailymail.co.uk, July 10, 2007
46.US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Fast Facts: School Uniforms," nces.ed.gov (accessed Oct. 24, 2018)
47.Michael Colasanti, "School Uniforms and Dress Codes: State Policies," ecs.org, Mar. 2008
48.Lee. A. Daniels, "Uniforms a Hit at Four Public Schools," nytimes.com, Dec. 6, 1987
49.Jon Allan Reyhner, "Indian Boarding Schools," californiaindianeducation.org (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
50.New York Times, "School Uniforms Growing in Favor in California," nytimes.com, Sep. 3, 1994
51.Bill Clinton, "Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union," presidency.ucsb.edu, Jan. 23, 1996
52.Alison Mitchell, "Clinton Will Advise Schools on Uniforms," nytimes.com, Feb. 25, 1996
53.Court of Appeals of Arizona, Division 2, Department B, Phoenix Elementary School District No. 1 v. Green, caselaw.findlaw.com, Mar. 27, 1997
54.United States District Court, North Carolina, Eastern Division, Hicks v. Halifax County Board of Education, law.justia.com, Dec. 15, 1999
55.American Civil Liberties Union, "Student Prevails in NC School Uniform Dispute," aclu.org, Jan. 11, 2000
56.Cy Ryan, "Appeals Court Sends School Uniform Lawsuit Back to Lower Court for Additional Review," lasvegassun.com, Feb. 14, 2014
57.Maura Dolan, "Appeals Court Finds Nevada School's Uniform Policy Unconstitutional," latimes.com, Feb. 14, 2014
58.United States District Court, New Mexico, Bivens by Green v. Albuquerque Public Schools, leagle.com, Aug. 25, 1995
59.Charles Haynes, "School Officials Ease up on Uniform Enforcement," freedomforum.org, Jan. 16, 2000
60.Kyler Sumter, "History Repeating: Don't Censor What I Wear, Let Me Be," huffingtonpost.com, Feb. 27, 2014
61.Seventeen, "Make Your School Uniform Unique!," seventeen.com (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
62.Teen Vogue, "How to Accessorize Your School Uniform," teenvogue.com (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
63.Harold Howe II, "Leaning toward the Spartans and Away from the Athenians," edweek.org, Apr. 3, 1996
64.M. Sue Stanley, "School Uniforms and Safety," Education and Urban Society, Aug. 1996
65.Andrea Dashiell, "School Uniforms: Conformity vs. Creativity," parentmap.com, Sep. 25, 2013
66.David L. Brunsma and Kerry A. Rockquemore, "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement," Journal of Educational Research, Sep./Oct. 1998
67.New York Times, "American Topics: Mandatory School Uniforms May Reduce Crime by Pupils," nytimes.com, Sep. 25, 1995
68.Linda Lumsden and Gabriel Miller, "Dress Codes and Uniforms," Research Roundup: National Association of Elementary School Principals, Summer 2002
69.Seunghee Han, "A Mandatory Uniform Policy in Urban Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04," International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 2010
70.Joel Donofrio, "Dressed to Distraction," cdapress.com, Nov. 16, 2012
71.Worthington Christian Schools, "School Uniforms," worthingtonchristian.com (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
72.Charles Badger, "Report of Standard School Attire: A Look at the Issues," schoenml.org (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
73.Lois K. Solomon, "9 More Schools to Have Students Wear Uniforms," sun-sentinel.com, May 6, 2000
74.Dhanya Skariachan, "Uniforms Seen as Bright Spot in Drab U.S. Back-to-School Season," reuters.com, Aug. 14, 2013
75.Beth Asaff, "Pros and Cons of School Uniforms," kids.lovetoknow.com (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)
76.Grace Chen, "Public School Uniforms: The Pros and Cons for Your Child," publicschoolreview.com, Apr. 24, 2014
77.United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Jacobs v. Clark County School District, May 12, 2008
78.US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012," nces.ed.gov, June 26, 2013
79.Erikson Institute, "Erik H. Erikson: Erikson Institute's Namesake," erikson.edu (accessed Aug. 21, 2014)
80.Melinda Swafford, Lee Ann Jolley, and Leigh Southward, "The Student Dress Code Debate," Techniques, Jan. 2011
81.188th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "General Laws: Chapter 71: Public Schools," malegislature.gov (accessed Aug. 21, 2014)
82.St. Petersburg Times Editorial Board, "Uniform Policy Goes Too Far," sptimes.com, July 23, 1999
83.Jenny Scott, "School Uniforms: A History of 'Rebellion and Conformity,'" bbc.com, Sep. 5, 2014
84.Chris Hush, "Students Skipping Class Due to Cost of School Uniforms," wgal.com, Sep. 10, 2014
85.Shawn Jeffords, "Uniforms Won't Stop School Bullies, Experts Say," stcatharinestandard.ca, Mar. 14, 2012
86.Peter McGuire, "No Skirting the School Uniform Debate," irishtimes.com, Feb. 8, 2016
87.Schoolwear News, "School Uniforms Costs Just 45p a Day--New Study Shows," schoolwearassociation.co.uk, Aug. 20, 2015
88.US Department of Education and US Department of Justice, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015," nces.ed.gov, May 2016
89.Chris Baumann and Hana Krskova, "School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance," International Journal of Educational Management, 2016
90.National Center for Education Statistics, "Indicator 8: Students' Reports of Gangs at School," nces.ed.gov, May 2017
91.Printwear and Promotion, "Schoolwear Association Research Reveals Uniforms Can Be a Powerful Tool," printwearandpromotion.co.uk, Sep. 13, 2017
92.Christian Sheckler, "Washington High School May Do Away with Uniform Policy," southbendtribune.com, Apr. 25, 2017
93.Adam Sherwin, "High Price of School Uniforms Leaves Children at Risk of Bullying," independent.co.uk, Feb. 24, 2015
94.Patrick Butler, "Hidden Costs of State Schools Causing Hardship for Millions," theguardian.com, Oct. 28, 2014
95.National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2018," nces.ed.gov, Apr. 2019
96.Sarah Mervosh, "Girls at North Carolina School Don’t Have to Wear Skirts, Judge Rules," nytimes.com, Mar. 31, 2019
97.National Center for Education Statistics, “School Uniforms,” nces.ed.gov (accessed May 3, 2021)