Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Elisabetta Gentile and Scott A. Imberman, "Dressed for Success? The Effect of School Uniforms on Student Achievement and Behavior,", Jan. 15, 2010

  2. Ryan Yeung, "Are School Uniforms a Good Fit?: Results from the ECLS-K and the NELS," Educational Policy, Nov. 2009

  3. Jennifer Weiss, "Do Clothes Make the Student?,", Sep. 16, 2006

  4. Dorothy Behling, "School Uniforms and Person Perception," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Oct. 1994

  5. University of North Texas, "School Uniforms Equalize Students, Education Professors Say,", Aug. 3, 2006

  6. John A. Gavin, "Schools Find Stricter Rules, Uniforms Can Lessen Bullying,", Feb. 8, 2011

  7. Daily Herald Editorial Board, "Uniforms Benefit Students,", Sep. 4, 2012

  8., "Editorial: Do Uniforms Make Better Students?,", Sep. 29, 2011

  9. Madison Park, "School Uniforms Poll Bares Generation Gap,", Dec. 23, 2007

  10. Carol Motsinger, "Ironing out Policies on School Uniforms,", Aug. 6, 2007

  11. Ovetta Wiggins, "Pr. George's Students Who Chose Pink, Not Uniforms, for Breast Cancer Month Punished,", Oct. 25, 2013

  12. Linda Starr, "Can Uniforms Save Our Schools?,", May 11, 1998

  13. Glori Chaika, "School Uniforms: Panacea or Band-Aid?,", Oct. 11, 1999

  14. David L. Brunsma, The School Uniform Movement and What It Tells Us about American Education: A Symbolic Crusade, 2004

  15. Peter Caruso, "Individuality vs. Conformity: The Issue behind School Uniforms," NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) Bulletin, Sep. 1996

  16. American Civil Liberties Union, "All Dressed Up and Nowhere to Go: Students and Their Parents Fight School Uniform Policies,", Nov. 4, 1999

  17. American Civil Liberties Union of Nevada, "Four Reasons Public Schools Should Think Twice Before Instituting School Uniform Policies,", Dec. 19, 2008

  18. David L. Hudson Jr., "Clothing, Dress Codes & Uniforms,", Apr. 1, 2002

  19. French Toast Official School Wear, "Why School Uniforms?," (accessed Aug. 15, 2014)

  20. John A. Huss, "The Role of School Uniforms in Creating an Academically Motivating Climate: Do Uniforms Influence Teacher Expectations," Journal of Ethnographic and Qualitative Research, 2007

  21. Lisa Flam, "Are School Uniforms Helping or Hindering?,", Aug. 19, 2013

  22. Greg Toppo, "What to Wear? Schools Increasingly Making That Decision,", Aug. 18, 2013

  23. US Department of Education and Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013,", June 2014

  24. Kathleen Kiley Wade and Mary E. Stafford, "Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions," Education and Urban Society, Aug. 2003

  25. Claudene Wharton, "College of Education Researchers Conduct Study on Impacts of School Uniforms,", Apr. 23, 2013

  26. J. Scott Granberg-Rademacker, Jeffrey Bumgarner, and Avra Johnson, "Do School Violence Policies Matter? An Empirical Analysis of Four Approaches to Reduce School Violence," Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice, Spring 2007

  27. Virginia Ann Bendel Draa, "School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools,", Nov. 30, 2005

  28. US Supreme Court, Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District,, Feb. 24, 1969

  29. United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board,, Jan. 23, 2001

  30. Mike Wilson, "Clinton Raps Teacher Merit Pay," Associated Press, Nov. 19, 2007

  31. Camille Chatterjee, "Uniform Improvements,", Sep. 1, 1999

  32. National Association of Elementary School Principals, "National Survey of School Leaders Reveals 2013 School Uniform Trends,", July 30, 2013

  33. Linda Abel Fosseen, "School Uniforms in Middle Schools: Enhancing Identity and Security," Uniforms in Public Schools: A Decade of Research and Debate, Ed. David L. Brunsma, 2006

  34. Mark Walsh and Karen Diegmueller, "Law Update: Judge Upholds Mandatory Uniforms at Phoenix School,", Nov. 15, 1995

  35. US Department of Education, "Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools: An Action Guide: Uniforms,", Sep. 1996

  36. US Department of Justice and US Department of Health and Human Services, "Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership,", 2013

  37. Jay Wheeler, "Letters to the Editor: School Uniforms Discourage Gangs,", Sep. 10, 2009

  38. Larry Wilder, "Pros and Cons of School Dress Code: Pros of School Dress Code: Helping Students Dress for Safety,", Nov. 11, 2007

  39. United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, Richards, Jr. v. Thurston,, Apr. 28, 1970

  40. George Carlin, You Are All Diseased (album), 1999

  41. Angela Walmsley, "What the United Kingdom Can Teach the United States about School Uniforms," Phi Delta Kappan, Mar. 2011

  42. Tom Houlihan, "School Uniform Debate: 'School Uniforms Are Just Another Distraction,'" (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  43. Joe Mathews, "In Uniforms, No Uniformity,", July 11, 2001

  44. Maria Halkias, "Retail Sales' Dip Trims Merchants' Hopes for Back-to-School Season,", Jan. 18, 2011

  45. Laura Clark, "School Uniform Improves Pupils' Behaviour Both in and out of School,", July 10, 2007

  46. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Fast Facts: School Uniforms," (accessed Oct. 24, 2018)

  47. Michael Colasanti, "School Uniforms and Dress Codes: State Policies,", Mar. 2008

  48. Lee. A. Daniels, "Uniforms a Hit at Four Public Schools,", Dec. 6, 1987

  49. Jon Allan Reyhner, "Indian Boarding Schools," (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  50. New York Times, "School Uniforms Growing in Favor in California,", Sep. 3, 1994

  51. Bill Clinton, "Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union,", Jan. 23, 1996

  52. Alison Mitchell, "Clinton Will Advise Schools on Uniforms,", Feb. 25, 1996

  53. Court of Appeals of Arizona, Division 2, Department B, Phoenix Elementary School District No. 1 v. Green,, Mar. 27, 1997

  54. United States District Court, North Carolina, Eastern Division, Hicks v. Halifax County Board of Education,, Dec. 15, 1999

  55. American Civil Liberties Union, "Student Prevails in NC School Uniform Dispute,", Jan. 11, 2000

  56. Cy Ryan, "Appeals Court Sends School Uniform Lawsuit Back to Lower Court for Additional Review,", Feb. 14, 2014

  57. Maura Dolan, "Appeals Court Finds Nevada School's Uniform Policy Unconstitutional,", Feb. 14, 2014

  58. United States District Court, New Mexico, Bivens by Green v. Albuquerque Public Schools,, Aug. 25, 1995

  59. Charles Haynes, "School Officials Ease up on Uniform Enforcement,", Jan. 16, 2000

  60. Kyler Sumter, "History Repeating: Don't Censor What I Wear, Let Me Be,", Feb. 27, 2014

  61. Seventeen, "Make Your School Uniform Unique!," (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  62. Teen Vogue, "How to Accessorize Your School Uniform," (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  63. Harold Howe II, "Leaning toward the Spartans and Away from the Athenians,", Apr. 3, 1996

  64. M. Sue Stanley, "School Uniforms and Safety," Education and Urban Society, Aug. 1996

  65. Andrea Dashiell, "School Uniforms: Conformity vs. Creativity,", Sep. 25, 2013

  66. David L. Brunsma and Kerry A. Rockquemore, "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement," Journal of Educational Research, Sep./Oct. 1998

  67. New York Times, "American Topics: Mandatory School Uniforms May Reduce Crime by Pupils,", Sep. 25, 1995

  68. Linda Lumsden and Gabriel Miller, "Dress Codes and Uniforms," Research Roundup: National Association of Elementary School Principals, Summer 2002

  69. Seunghee Han, "A Mandatory Uniform Policy in Urban Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04," International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 2010

  70. Joel Donofrio, "Dressed to Distraction,", Nov. 16, 2012

  71. Worthington Christian Schools, "School Uniforms," (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  72. Charles Badger, "Report of Standard School Attire: A Look at the Issues," (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  73. Lois K. Solomon, "9 More Schools to Have Students Wear Uniforms,", May 6, 2000

  74. Dhanya Skariachan, "Uniforms Seen as Bright Spot in Drab U.S. Back-to-School Season,", Aug. 14, 2013

  75. Beth Asaff, "Pros and Cons of School Uniforms," (accessed Aug. 20, 2014)

  76. Grace Chen, "Public School Uniforms: The Pros and Cons for Your Child,", Apr. 24, 2014

  77. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Jacobs v. Clark County School District, May 12, 2008

  78. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012,", June 26, 2013

  79. Erikson Institute, "Erik H. Erikson: Erikson Institute's Namesake," (accessed Aug. 21, 2014)

  80. Melinda Swafford, Lee Ann Jolley, and Leigh Southward, "The Student Dress Code Debate," Techniques, Jan. 2011

  81. 188th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "General Laws: Chapter 71: Public Schools," (accessed Aug. 21, 2014)

  82. St. Petersburg Times Editorial Board, "Uniform Policy Goes Too Far,", July 23, 1999

  83. Jenny Scott, "School Uniforms: A History of 'Rebellion and Conformity,'", Sep. 5, 2014

  84. Chris Hush, "Students Skipping Class Due to Cost of School Uniforms,", Sep. 10, 2014

  85. Shawn Jeffords, "Uniforms Won't Stop School Bullies, Experts Say,", Mar. 14, 2012

  86. Peter McGuire, "No Skirting the School Uniform Debate,", Feb. 8, 2016

  87. Schoolwear News, "School Uniforms Costs Just 45p a Day--New Study Shows,", Aug. 20, 2015

  88. US Department of Education and US Department of Justice, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015,", May 2016

  89. Chris Baumann and Hana Krskova, "School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance," International Journal of Educational Management, 2016

  90. National Center for Education Statistics, "Indicator 8: Students' Reports of Gangs at School,", May 2017

  91. Printwear and Promotion, "Schoolwear Association Research Reveals Uniforms Can Be a Powerful Tool,", Sep. 13, 2017

  92. Christian Sheckler, "Washington High School May Do Away with Uniform Policy,", Apr. 25, 2017

  93. Adam Sherwin, "High Price of School Uniforms Leaves Children at Risk of Bullying,", Feb. 24, 2015

  94. Patrick Butler, "Hidden Costs of State Schools Causing Hardship for Millions,", Oct. 28, 2014

  95. National Center for Education Statistics, "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2017,", Mar. 2018


James Bennet, "Clinton Urges Stricter Rules in Schools,", July 21, 1998

Eric Scott Campbell, "Atlantic City High School Has Suspended 150 Students Per Day over Dress Code,", Sep. 15, 2009

Bill Clinton, "The President's Radio Address,", Feb. 24, 1996

Amanda Cochran, "ACLU, Parents Challenge Uniform Dress Code,", Aug. 20, 2010

Criminal Justice Degrees Guide, "9 Ways School Has Changed Since Columbine," (accessed Aug. 21, 2014)

Maureen Dowd, "Liberties; School Uniform Blues,", Jan. 28, 1996

Ainsley Hartman, "Benefits of School Uniforms,", Mar. 1, 2013

John F. Kennedy, "Address to the UN General Assembly,", Sep. 25, 1961

Chris Lang, "School Uniforms Curb Student Individuality,", Apr. 16, 2013

Tamar Lewin, "Dress for Success: Public School Uniforms,", Sep. 25, 1997

Paula J. Owen, "ACLU Opposes School Uniforms,", Mar. 4, 2010

Sharon Shamburger Pate, "The Influence of a Mandatory School Uniform Policy,", Dec. 1999

Television New Zealand, "Boy Beaten as School Rivalry Heats Up,", Oct. 21, 2007

Uniforms in Public Schools: A Decade of Research and Debate, Ed. David L. Brunsma, 2006

US Supreme Court, Pierce v. Society of Sisters,, June 1, 1925